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The digitization of the society of the European Union in 2018 and 2021


[ 1 ] Wydział Techniczny, Akademia im. Jakuba z Paradyża | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in

Procedia Computer Science

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: 207

Article type

scientific article / paper

Publication language


  • informationcommunication technologyk-meanscluster analysisdigital divide

EN From year to year, an increase in the availability and use of information and communication technology (ICT) is observed. Therefore, it is important to reduce the imbalance in the use of ICT, which will contribute to the improvement of life and development of the society. The article presents the application of the k-means method to classify European Union (EU) countries in terms of the use of ICT by natural persons living in the EU in 2021 compared to the situation in 2018. The empirical material used in the analyses came from the resources of the European Statistical Office (Eurostat). The obtained results of the classification research of EU member states showed that the awareness of the society as well as knowledge of ICT and digital skills increase every year, however, the dynamics of this growth turned out to be significantly different in terms of territories. Germany turned out to be a surprise, as in 2021, compared to 2018, a significant decrease in all examined ICT indicators was recorded, which resulted in the shift of this country from the first to the third – the weakest class.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

3557 - 3565




Presented on

26th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information & Engineering Systems, 7-9.09.2022, VERONA, Włochy

License type

CC BY-NC-ND (attribution - noncommercial - no derivatives)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Release date

09.2022 (Date presumed)

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Ministry points / conference (CORE)