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Improving the Spatial Characteristics of Three-Level LUT-Based Mealy FSM Circuits


[ 1 ] Wydział Techniczny, Akademia im. Jakuba z Paradyża | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: 11 | Journal number: 2

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Mealy FSM; FPGA; LUT; synthesis; replacement of inputs; collections of outputs; twofold state assignment

EN The main purpose of the method proposed in this article is to reduce the number of look-up-table (LUT) elements in logic circuits of sequential devices. The devices are represented by models of Mealy finite state machines (FSMs). Thesee are so-called MPY FSMs based on two methods of structural decomposition (the replacement of inputs and encoding of output collections). The main idea is to use two types of state codes for implementing systems of partial Boolean functions. Some functions are based on maximum binary codes; other functions depend on extended state codes. The reduction in LUT counts is based on using the method of twofold state assignment. The proposed method makes it possible to obtain FPGA-based FSM circuits with four logic levels. Only one LUT is required to implement the circuit corresponding to any partial function. An example of FSM synthesis using the proposed method is shown. The results of the conducted experiments show that the proposed approach produces LUT-based FSM circuits with better area-temporal characteristics than for circuits produced using such methods as Auto and One-hot of Vivado, JEDI, and MPY FSMs. Compared to MPY FSMs, the values of LUT counts are improved. On average, this improvement is 8.98%, but the gain reaches 13.65% for fairly complex FSMs. The maximum operating frequency is slightly improved as compared with the circuits of MPY FSMs (up to 0.64%). For both LUT counts and frequency, the gain increases together with the growth for the numbers of FSM inputs, outputs and states.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

1133(1) - 1133(31)




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

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Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

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